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UCSF Cardiology
Transforming medicine through innovation and collaboration.
Department of Medicine

Faculty Profiles

Henry Hsia, MD

500 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94143

Dr. Hsia's clinical and research interests have concentrated on the characterization of the electroanatomical substrate of ventricular arrhythmias, particularly in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. His work focuses on identifying and defining various surrogate markers of the arrhythmia focus or circuit within the scar during a stable rhythm.

His research helped to develop new treatment strategies by deploying a substrate-based ablation for ventricular tachycardia, particularly in patients with ventricular arrhythmias that are unstable, with multiple morphologies, and not amendable to conventional mapping techniques.

Education and Training

Location Degree or Training Specialty Date
Tufts University M.D. School of Medicine 1984


SCUBA diving, medicine, underwater photography, underwater physiology

Recent Articles (90)

Hsia HH, Scheinman M. Pulmonary Sinus of Valsalva Arrhythmias: A New Twist to an Old Story. Heart Rhythm. 2017 Sep 13.

Lo R, Chia KK, Hsia HH. Ventricular Tachycardia in Ischemic Heart Disease. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2017 Mar; 9(1):25-46.

Whitman IR, Gladstone RA, Badhwar N, Hsia HH, Lee BK, Josephson SA, Meisel KM, Dillon WP, Hess CP, Gerstenfeld EP, Marcus GM. Brain Emboli After Left Ventricular Endocardial Ablation. Circulation. 2017 Feb 28; 135(9):867-877.

Motonaga KS, Ceresnak SR, Hsia HH. Unusual Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016 Mar; 8(1):79-88.

Marchlinski FE, Haffajee CI, Beshai JF, Dickfeld TL, Gonzalez MD, Hsia HH, Schuger CD, Beckman KJ, Bogun FM, Pollak SJ, Bhandari AK. Long-Term Success of Irrigated Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia: Post-Approval THERMOCOOL VT Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Feb 16; 67(6):674-683.

Hsia HH. Ventricular Tachycardias. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016 Mar; 8(1):75-8.

Nazer B, Hsia HH. Pleomorphic Ventricular Tachycardias in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016 Mar; 8(1):131-7.

Kaiser DW, Hsia HH, Dubin AM, Liem LB, Viswanathan MN, Zei PC, Wang PJ, Narayan SM, Turakhia MP. The precise timing of tachycardia entrainment is determined by the postpacing interval, the tachycardia cycle length, and the pacing rate: Theoretical insights and practical applications. Heart Rhythm. 2016 Mar; 13(3):695-703.

Wettersten N, Fan D, Hsia HH. Not Simply Sinus Tachycardia. Am J Med. 2015 Sep; 128(9):e13-4.

Kawamura M, Hsu JC, Vedantham V, Marcus GM, Hsia HH, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM, Badhwar N. Clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias with right bundle branch block and superior axis: Comparison of apical crux area and posterior septal left ventricle. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jun; 12(6):1137-44.

Mikuz U, Poglajen G, Fister M, Starc V, Wu JC, Hsia H, Haddad F, Vrtovec B. The presence of electromechanical mismatch in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with ventricular repolarization instability. J Card Fail. 2014 Dec; 20(12):891-8.

Kawamura M, Gerstenfeld EP, Vedantham V, Rodrigues DM, Burkhardt JD, Kobayashi Y, Hsia HH, Marcus GM, Marchlinski FE, Scheinman MM, Badhwar N. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia originating from the cardiac crux or inferior septum: epicardial idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Dec; 7(6):1152-8.

Hoffmayer KS, Dewland TA, Hsia HH, Badhwar N, Hsu JC, Tseng ZH, Marcus GM, Scheinman MM, Gerstenfeld EP. Safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation without coronary angiography in aortic cusp ventricular arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm. 2014 Jul; 11(7):1117-21.

Klein L, Hsia H. Sudden cardiac death in heart failure. Cardiol Clin. 2014 Feb; 32(1):135-44, ix.

Rennert RC, Rustad K, Levi K, Harwood M, Sorkin M, Wong VW, Al-Ahmad A, Zei P, Hsia H, Beygui RE, Norton L, Wang P, Gurtner GC. A histological and mechanical analysis of the cardiac lead-tissue interface: implications for lead extraction. Acta Biomater. 2014 May; 10(5):2200-8.

Santangeli P, Hsia HH, Wang PJ, Al-Ahmad A. Shock-induced ventricular tachycardia: what is the mechanism? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Apr; 37(4):516-9.

Wang Y, Patel D, Wang DW, Yan JT, Hsia HH, Liu H, Zhao CX, Zuo HJ, Wang DW. ß1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2013 Nov; 36(11):1348-56.

Han B, Li XJ, Hsia HH. Catheter ablation of arrhythmia from the aortic sinus cusp: the presence of a dead-end tract of the conduction system. Europace. 2013 Oct; 15(10):1515.

Birgersdotter-Green U, Ruetz LL, Anand K, Monir G, Abeyratne AI, Bailey JR, Shorofsky SR, Hsia HH, Friedman PA. Automated vulnerability testing identifies patients with inadequate defibrillation safety margin. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Dec; 5(6):1073-80.

Hsia HH, Haddad F. Pulmonary hypertension: a stage for ventricular interdependence? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jun 12; 59(24):2203-5.

Cheng Z, Turakhia M, Lo R, Gupta A, Zei PC, Hsia HH, Al-Ahmad A, Wang PJ. Incidence and clinical predictors of low defibrillation safety margin at time of implantable defibrillator implantation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012 Jun; 34(1):93-100.

Tsai V, Goldstein MK, Hsia HH, Wang Y, Curtis J, Heidenreich PA. Influence of age on perioperative complications among patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention in the United States. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011 Sep; 4(5):549-56.

Tsai V, Goldstein MK, Hsia HH, Wang Y, Curtis J, Heidenreich PA. Age differences in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in U.S. individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Sep; 59(9):1589-95.

Tognolini A, Al-Ahmad A, Wang PJ, Hsia HH, Herfkens RJ, Girard E, Moore T, Fahrig R. Intraprocedure visualization of the esophagus using interventional C-arm CT as guidance for left atrial radiofrequency ablation. Acad Radiol. 2011 Jul; 18(7):850-7.

Di Biase L, Al-Ahamad A, Santangeli P, Hsia HH, Sanchez J, Bai R, Bailey S, Horton R, Gallinghouse GJ, Burkhardt DJ, Lakkireddy D, Yang Y, Badhwar N, Scheinman M, Tung R, Dello Russo A, Pelargonio G, Casella M, Tomassoni G, Shivkumar K, Natale A. Safety and outcomes of cryoablation for ventricular tachyarrhythmias: results from a multicenter experience. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jul; 8(7):968-74.

Kuppahally SS, Fowler MB, Vagelos R, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A, Hsia H, Liang D. Dyssynchrony Assessment with Tissue Doppler Imaging and Regional Volumetric Analysis by 3D Echocardiography Do Not Predict Long-Term Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Cardiol Res Pract. 2010 Dec 22; 2011:568918.

Hsia HH. Epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation an evolution of needs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 May 25; 55(21):2373-5.

Gupta A, Hsia HH, Lo R, Zei PC. Electroanatomic localization of a slowly conducting atrioventricular (Mahaim) accessory pathway. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 31(2):119-24.

Hsia HH, Lin D, Sauer WH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Relationship of late potentials to the ventricular tachycardia circuit defined by entrainment. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2009 Oct; 26(1):21-9.

Tsai VW, Cooper J, Garan H, Natale A, Ptaszek LM, Ellinor PT, Hickey K, Downey R, Zei P, Hsia H, Wang P, Hunt S, Haddad F, Al-Ahmad A. The efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in heart transplant recipients: results from a multicenter registry. Circ Heart Fail. 2009 May; 2(3):197-201.

Eversull CS, Lin B, Irani AR, Quigley ML, Mourlas NJ, Hsia HH, Zei PC, Al-Ahmad A, Wang PJ. Direct visualization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009 Jun; 2(2):198-201.

Irani AR, Lin B, Eversull C, Hsia HH, Zei PC, Wang PJ, Al-Ahmad A. Visualizing ablation gaps in vitro using a deflectable fiber optic endocardial visualization catheter. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2009 Aug; 25(2):107-10.

Kamousi B, Tewfik A, Lin B, Al-Ahmad A, Hsia H, Zei P, Wang P. A new approach for ICD rhythm classification based on support vector machines. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009; 2009:2478-81.

Lo R, Al-Ahmad A, Hsia H, Zei PC, Wang PJ. Optimal Programming of ICDs for Prevention of Appropriate and Inappropriate Shocks. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Sep; 10(5):408-16.

Lo R, Hsia HH. Ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure patients. Cardiol Clin. 2008 Aug; 26(3):381-403, vi.

Nayak HM, Verdino RJ, Russo AM, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Lin D, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Ventricular tachycardia storm after initiation of biventricular pacing: incidence, clinical characteristics, management, and outcome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Jul; 19(7):708-15.

Kamousi B, Lin B, Al-Ahmad A, Hsia H, Zei P, Natale A, Moss A, Daubert J, Zareba W, Wang P. A covariance-based algorithm: a novel technique for rhythm discrimination in ICDs. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:5478-81.

Anh DJ, Eversull CS, Chen HA, Mofrad P, Mourlas NJ, Mead RH, Zei PC, Hsia HH, Wang PJ, Al-Ahmad A. Characterization of human coronary sinus valves by direct visualization during biventricular pacemaker implantation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2008 Jan; 31(1):78-82.

Tsai V, Chen H, Hsia H, Zei P, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A. Cardiac device infections complicated by erosion. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2007 Aug; 19(2):133-7.

Mofrad PS, Ottoboni L, Zei PC, Hsia HH, Wang PJ. VF and fatal cardiac arrest following ICD therapy delivery: what is the cause? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Apr; 30(4):551-3.

Mofrad PS, Hsia HH. An unusual cause of incessant tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Mar; 30(3):418-20.

Chen HA, Hsia HH, Vagelos R, Fowler M, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A. The effect of gender on mortality or appropriate shock in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Mar; 30(3):390-4.

Anh DJ, Hsia HH, Reitz B, Zei P. Epicardial ablation of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia with an externally irrigated catheter in a patient with mechanical aortic and mitral valves. Heart Rhythm. 2007 May; 4(5):651-4.

Al-Ahmad A, Tsiperfal A, Hsia HH, Wang PJ. Inappropriate shock: a failure of SVT discriminators in a dual chamber ICD? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Dec; 29(12):1413-5.

Ahmad I, Craig Miller D, Berry GJ, Hsia HH, Wang PJ, Al-Ahmad A. Isolated giant cell myocarditis in the atrium: an incidental finding? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct; 29(10):1179-80.

Mofrad PS, Tsiperfal A, Hsia H, Al-Ahmad A. Alternating biventricular pacing morphologies: what is the cause? Heart Rhythm. 2006 Dec; 3(12):1503-4.

Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Cooper JM, Lin D, Russo AM, Verdino RJ, Patel VV, Kimmel SE, Ratcliffe SJ, Hsia HH, Nayak HM, Zado E, Ren JF, Marchlinski FE. Comparison of cool tip versus 8-mm tip catheter in achieving electrical isolation of pulmonary veins for long-term control of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized pilot study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct; 17(10):1074-9.

Hsia H. Pacing prevention of atrial fibrillation: is it ready for the prime time? Heart Rhythm. 2006 Oct; 3(10):1172-4.

Mainigi SK, Cooper JM, Russo AM, Nayak HM, Lin D, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE, Verdino RJ. Elevated defibrillation thresholds in patients undergoing biventricular defibrillator implantation: incidence and predictors. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Sep; 3(9):1010-6.

Anh DJ, Chen HA, Eversull CS, Mourlas NJ, Mead RH, Liem LB, Hsia HH, Wang PJ, Al-Ahmad A. Early human experience with use of a deflectable fiberoptic endocardial visualization catheter to facilitate coronary sinus cannulation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Aug; 3(8):875-8.

Al-Ahmad A, Tsiperfal A, Hsia HH, Wang PJ. Supraventricular tachycardia vs ventricular tachycardia: what is the rhythm? Heart Rhythm. 2006 Apr; 3(4):490-1.

Hsia HH, Lin D, Sauer WH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Anatomic characterization of endocardial substrate for hemodynamically stable reentrant ventricular tachycardia: identification of endocardial conducting channels. Heart Rhythm. 2006 May; 3(5):503-12.

Tsiperfal A, Hsia H, Thompson C. What to treat-the fast or the slow rhythm? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006; 21(4):223-4.

Rohatgi S, Wiegers SE, Hsia H, Herling I, Herrmann HC. Acute decompensation of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy secondary to A-V disassociation: successful treatment with a combination of alcohol septal ablation and permanent pacemaker. J Interv Cardiol. 2005 Oct; 18(5):401-6.

Marchlinski F, Garcia F, Siadatan A, Sauer W, Beldner S, Zado E, Hsia H, Lin D, Cooper J, Verdino R, Gerstenfeld E, Dixit S, Russo A, Callans D. Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation ablation in the setting of ischemic heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Sep; 16 Suppl 1:S59-70.

Lin D, Hsia HH, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Nayak H, Russo A, Marchlinski FE. Idiopathic fascicular left ventricular tachycardia: linear ablation lesion strategy for noninducible or nonsustained tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Sep; 2(9):934-9.

Ren JF, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Lin D, Nayak HM, Hsia HH. Increased intensity of anticoagulation may reduce risk of thrombus during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures in patients with spontaneous echo contrast. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 May; 16(5):474-7.

Russo AM, Sauer W, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Lin D, Cooper JM, Dixit S, Verdino RJ, Nayak HM, Callans DJ, Patel V, Marchlinski FE. Defibrillation threshold testing: is it really necessary at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion? Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5):456-61.

Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Lin D, Callans DJ, Hsia HH, Nayak HM, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Identification of distinct electrocardiographic patterns from the basal left ventricle: distinguishing medial and lateral sites of origin in patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5):485-91.

Patel VV, Rho RW, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Right bundle-branch block ventricular tachycardias: septal versus lateral ventricular origin based on activation time to the right ventricular apex. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26; 110(17):2582-7.

Marchlinski FE, Zado E, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld E, Callans DJ, Hsia H, Lin D, Nayak H, Russo A, Pulliam W. Electroanatomic substrate and outcome of catheter ablative therapy for ventricular tachycardia in setting of right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2004 Oct 19; 110(16):2293-8.

Lin D, Dixit S, Russo AM, Hsia HH. Total failure to sense ventricular fibrillation with inappropriate defibrillator sensitivity adjustment. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 Sep; 27(9):1321-3.

Russo AM, Nayak H, Verdino R, Springman J, Gerstenfeld E, Hsia H, Marchlinski FE. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator events in patients with asymptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia: is device implantation justified? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Dec; 26(12):2289-95.

Hsia HH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Characterization of endocardial electrophysiological substrate in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Circulation. 2003 Aug 12; 108(6):704-10.

Hsia HH. Substrate mapping: the historical perspective and current status. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003 May; 14(5):530-2.

Wilkoff BL, Cook JR, Epstein AE, Greene HL, Hallstrom AP, Hsia H, Kutalek SP, Sharma A. Dual-chamber pacing or ventricular backup pacing in patients with an implantable defibrillator: the Dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial. JAMA. 2002 Dec 25; 288(24):3115-23.

Hsia HH, Marchlinski FE. Electrophysiology studies in patients with dilated cardiomyopathies. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2002 Dec; 6(4):472-81.

Hsia HH, Marchlinski FE. Characterization of the electroanatomic substrate for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2002 Jul; 25(7):1114-27.

Russo AM, Verdino R, Schorr C, Nicholas M, Dias D, Hsia H, Callans D, Marchlinski FE. Occurrence of implantable defibrillator events in patients with syncope and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Dec 15; 88(12):1444-6, A9.

Marchlinski FE, Zado ES, Callans DJ, Patel VV, Ashar MS, Hsia HH, Russo AM. Hybrid therapy for ventricular arrhythmia management. Cardiol Clin. 2000 May; 18(2):391-406.

Hsia HH, Jessup ML, Marchlinski FE. Debate: Do all patients with heart failure require implantable defibrillators to prevent sudden death? Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med. 2000; 1(2):98-101.

Rothman SA, Hsia HH, Cossú SF, Chmielewski IL, Buxton AE, Miller JM. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia: long-term success and the significance of inducible nonclinical arrhythmias. Circulation. 1997 Nov 18; 96(10):3499-508.

Cossú SF, Hsia HH, Simson MB, Hanna MS, Clyne CA. Inappropriate pauses during bradycardia pacing in a third-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997 Sep; 20(9 Pt 1):2271-4.

Cossú SF, Rothman SA, Chmielewski IL, Hsia HH, Vogel RL, Miller JM, Buxton AE. The effects of isoproterenol on the cardiac conduction system: site-specific dose dependence. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Aug; 8(8):847-53.

Miller JM, Cossú SF, Chmielewski IL, Hsia HH, Rothman SA, Vogel RL, Buxton AE. Primary ablation of atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Cardiol Clin. 1996 Nov; 14(4):569-90.

Rothman SA, Jeevanandam V, Combs WG, Furukawa S, Hsia HH, Eisen HJ, Buxton AE, Miller JM. Eliminating bradyarrhythmias after orthotopic heart transplantation. Circulation. 1996 Nov 01; 94(9 Suppl):II278-82.

Porterfield JG, Porterfield LM, Levine JH, Luceri RM, Hsia HH. Compatibility of a nonthoracotomy lead system with a biphasic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Cadence-Endotak 60-Series IDE investigators. Am J Cardiol. 1996 Mar 15; 77(8):586-90.

Miller JM, Hsia HH. Management of the patient with frequent discharges from implantable cardioverter defibrillator devices. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1996 Mar; 7(3):278-85.

Mitra RL, Hsia HH, Hook BG, Callans DJ, Flores BT, Miller JM, Josephson ME, Marchlinski FE. Efficacy of antitachycardia pacing in patients presenting with cardiac arrest. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1995 Nov; 18(11):2035-40.

Rothman SA, Miller JM, Hsia HH, Buxton AE. Radiofrequency ablation of a supraventricular tachycardia due to interatrial conduction from the recipient to donor atria in an orthotopic heart transplant recipient. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1995 Jul; 6(7):544-50.

Miller JM, Harper GR, Rothman SA, Hsia HH. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of an atriofascicular pathway during atrial fibrillation: a case report. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1994 Oct; 5(10):846-53.

Rothman SA, Hsia HH, Bove AA, Jeevanandam V, Miller JM. Radiofrequency ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in a donor heart after orthotopic heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994 Sep-Oct; 13(5):905-9.

Hsia HH, Kleiman RB, Flores BT, Marchlinski FE. Comparison of simultaneous versus sequential defibrillation pulsing techniques using a nonthoracotomy system. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1994 Jul; 17(7):1222-30.

Hsia HH, Mitra RL, Flores BT, Marchlinski FE. Early postoperative increase in defibrillation threshold with nonthoracotomy system in humans. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1994 Jun; 17(6):1166-73.

Hsia HH, Buxton AE. Work-up and management of patients with sustained and nonsustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardias. Cardiol Clin. 1993 Feb; 11(1):21-37.

Kremers MS, Hsia H, Wells P, Black W, Solo M, Albert D. Diastolic potentials recorded by surface electrocardiographic signal averaging during sustained ventricular tachycardia: possible origin from the reentrant circuit. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1991 Jun; 14(6):1000-6.

Hsia HH, Starling MR. Is standardization of left ventricular chamber elastance necessary? Circulation. 1990 Jun; 81(6):1826-36.

Bedotto JB, Grayburn PA, Black WH, Raya TE, McBride W, Hsia HH, Eichhorn EJ. Alterations in left ventricular relaxation during atrioventricular pacing in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Mar 01; 15(3):658-64.

Werns SW, Walton JA, Hsia HH, Nabel EG, Sanz ML, Pitt B. Evidence of endothelial dysfunction in angiographically normal coronary arteries of patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1989 Feb; 79(2):287-91.

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