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UCSF Cardiology
Transforming medicine through innovation and collaboration.
Department of Medicine

Faculty Profiles

Carlin Long, MD

555 Mission Bay Blvd South
San Francisco, CA 94158


My basic research interests are on the cell-specific responses to myocardial injury with a particular focus on understanding the role of pro-inflammatory molecules in the transition from compensated to decompensated myocardial failure. For nearly 25 years I have been investigating how cells in the heart "speak" to one another in normal and abnormal growth with a particular interest on the cardiac fibroblasts which initiate the process of scarring within the heart muscle following injury.

My clinical interests are in the arena of risk reduction for patients without known disease (primary prevention) but also in those with established disease (secondary prevention). I am particularly interested in how to engage patients in self-care using the wide variety of apps and wearables which allow for the accumulation of physiologic data over time and in monitoring how these can be modified by both behavioral cues but also in observing the response to therapies in their daily routines. In addition the advent of genome sequence data opens up another area for study in the field of prevention as well as in the patient-specific response to therapy, so-called personalized medicine.

Education and Training

Location Degree or Training Specialty Date
University of California, San Francisco Cardiology 6/1989
University of California, San Francisco Chief Resident Internal Medicine 06/1986
University of California, San Francisco Internal Medicine 06/1985
Southwestern Medical School MD Medicine 06/1982
Baylor University BS Biology 06/1978

Recent Articles (89)

Sharma P, Newman K, Long CS, Gasiewski AJ, Barnes F. Use of Wavelet Transform to Detect Compensated and Decompensated Stages in the Congestive Heart Failure Patient. Biosensors (Basel). 2017 Sep 20; 7(3).

Peña B, Bosi S, Aguado BA, Borin D, Farnsworth NL, Dobrinskikh E, Rowland TJ, Martinelli V, Jeong M, Taylor MRG, Long CS, Shandas R, Sbaizero O, Prato M, Anseth KS, Park D, Mestroni L. Injectable Carbon Nanotube-Functionalized Reverse Thermal Gel Promotes Cardiomyocytes Survival and Maturation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Sep 20; 9(37):31645-31656.

Blakeslee WW, Demos-Davies KM, Lemon DD, Lutter KM, Cavasin MA, Payne S, Nunley K, Long CS, McKinsey TA, Miyamoto SD. Histone deacetylase adaptation in single ventricle heart disease and a young animal model of right ventricular hypertrophy. Pediatr Res. 2017 Oct; 82(4):642-649.

Seriani S, Del Favero G, Mahaffey J, Marko D, Gallina P, Long CS, Mestroni L, Sbaizero O. The cell-stretcher: A novel device for the mechanical stimulation of cell populations. Rev Sci Instrum. 2016 Aug; 87(8):084301.

Peña B, Martinelli V, Jeong M, Bosi S, Lapasin R, Taylor MR, Long CS, Shandas R, Park D, Mestroni L. Biomimetic Polymers for Cardiac Tissue Engineering. Biomacromolecules. 2016 May 09; 17(5):1593-601.

Pflederer MC, Long CS, Beaty B, Havranek EP, Mehler PS, Keniston A, Krantz MJ. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension. Tex Heart Inst J. 2016 Apr; 43(2):131-6.

Pereira RI, Low Wang CC, Wolfe P, Havranek EP, Long CS, Bessesen DH. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Dec 22; 13(1):ijerph13010054.

Krantz MJ, Havranek EP, Pereira RI, Beaty B, Mehler PS, Long CS. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension: a randomized pilot study. J Negat Results Biomed. 2015 Dec 02; 14:21.

Lanzicher T, Martinelli V, Puzzi L, Del Favero G, Codan B, Long CS, Mestroni L, Taylor MR, Sbaizero O. The Cardiomyopathy Lamin A/C D192G Mutation Disrupts Whole-Cell Biomechanics in Cardiomyocytes as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy Loading-Unloading Curve Analysis. Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 01; 5:13388.

Lanzicher T, Martinelli V, Long CS, Del Favero G, Puzzi L, Borelli M, Mestroni L, Taylor MR, Sbaizero O. AFM single-cell force spectroscopy links altered nuclear and cytoskeletal mechanics to defective cell adhesion in cardiac myocytes with a nuclear lamin mutation. Nucleus. 2015; 6(5):394-407.

Sbaizero O, DelFavero G, Martinelli V, Long CS, Mestroni L. Analysis of long- and short-range contribution to adhesion work in cardiac fibroblasts: an atomic force microscopy study. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 Apr; 49:217-24.

Loveday PW, Long CS. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track. Ultrasonics. 2015 Mar; 57:209-17.

Codan B, Del Favero G, Martinelli V, Long CS, Mestroni L, Sbaizero O. Exploring the elasticity and adhesion behavior of cardiac fibroblasts by atomic force microscopy indentation. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014 Jul 01; 40:427-34.

Schuetze KB, McKinsey TA, Long CS. Targeting cardiac fibroblasts to treat fibrosis of the heart: focus on HDACs. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014 May; 70:100-7.

Ottaviani G, Gobbo M, Sturnega M, Martinelli V, Mano M, Zanconati F, Bussani R, Perinetti G, Long CS, Di Lenarda R, Giacca M, Biasotto M, Zacchigna S. Effect of class IV laser therapy on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a clinical and experimental study. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec; 183(6):1747-57.

Martinelli V, Cellot G, Toma FM, Long CS, Caldwell JH, Zentilin L, Giacca M, Turco A, Prato M, Ballerini L, Mestroni L. Carbon nanotubes instruct physiological growth and functionally mature syncytia: nongenetic engineering of cardiac myocytes. ACS Nano. 2013 Jul 23; 7(7):5746-56.

Brown RD, Ambler SK, Li M, Sullivan TM, Henry LN, Crossno JT, Long CS, Garrington TP, Stenmark KR. MAP kinase kinase kinase-2 (MEKK2) regulates hypertrophic remodeling of the right ventricle in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Jan 15; 304(2):H269-81.

Martinelli V, Cellot G, Toma FM, Long CS, Caldwell JH, Zentilin L, Giacca M, Turco A, Prato M, Ballerini L, Mestroni L. Carbon nanotubes promote growth and spontaneous electrical activity in cultured cardiac myocytes. Nano Lett. 2012 Apr 11; 12(4):1831-8.

Krantz MJ, Sabel AL, Sagar U, Long CS, Barbey JT, White KV, Gaudiani JL, Mehler PS. Factors influencing QT prolongation in patients hospitalized with severe anorexia nervosa. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012 Mar-Apr; 34(2):173-7.

Tamosiuniene R, Tian W, Dhillon G, Wang L, Sung YK, Gera L, Patterson AJ, Agrawal R, Rabinovitch M, Ambler K, Long CS, Voelkel NF, Nicolls MR. Regulatory T cells limit vascular endothelial injury and prevent pulmonary hypertension. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 30; 109(8):867-79.

Pereira RI, Wang CC, Hosokawa P, Dickinson LM, Chonchol M, Krantz MJ, Steiner JF, Bessesen DH, Havranek EP, Long CS. Circulating adiponectin levels are lower in Latino versus non-Latino white patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of adiposity measures. BMC Endocr Disord. 2011 Jul 07; 11:13.

Flierl MA, Gaudiani JL, Sabel AL, Long CS, Stahel PF, Mehler PS. Complement C3 serum levels in anorexia nervosa: a potential biomarker for the severity of disease? Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2011 May 04; 10:16.

Lemon DD, Horn TR, Cavasin MA, Jeong MY, Haubold KW, Long CS, Irwin DC, McCune SA, Chung E, Leinwand LA, McKinsey TA. Cardiac HDAC6 catalytic activity is induced in response to chronic hypertension. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jul; 51(1):41-50.

Krantz MJ, Long CS, Hosokawa P, Karimkahani E, Dickinson M, Estacio RO, Masoudi FA, Havranek EP. Pulse wave velocity and carotid atherosclerosis in white and Latino patients with hypertension. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011 Apr 11; 11:15.

Bakhshi S, Li X, Semenov N, Apodaca-Madrid J, Mahoor MH, Newman KE, Long CS, Neuman C. Congestive Heart Failure home monitoring pilot study in urban Denver. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011; 2011:3150-3.

DeBiasi RL, Robinson BA, Leser JS, Brown RD, Long CS, Clarke P. Critical role for death-receptor mediated apoptotic signaling in viral myocarditis. J Card Fail. 2010 Nov; 16(11):901-10.

Jeong MY, Walker JS, Brown RD, Moore RL, Vinson CS, Colucci WS, Long CS. AFos inhibits phenylephrine-mediated contractile dysfunction by altering phospholamban phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Jun; 298(6):H1719-26.

Bogaard HJ, Natarajan R, Henderson SC, Long CS, Kraskauskas D, Smithson L, Ockaili R, McCord JM, Voelkel NF. Chronic pulmonary artery pressure elevation is insufficient to explain right heart failure. Circulation. 2009 Nov 17; 120(20):1951-60.

Miyamoto SD, Brown RD, Robinson BA, Tyler KL, Long CS, Debiasi RL. Cardiac cell-specific apoptotic and cytokine responses to reovirus infection: determinants of myocarditic phenotype. J Card Fail. 2009 Aug; 15(6):529-39.

Ambler SK, Hodges YK, Jones GM, Long CS, Horwitz LD. Prolonged administration of a dithiol antioxidant protects against ventricular remodeling due to ischemia-reperfusion in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Sep; 295(3):H1303-H1310.

Krantz MJ, Havranek EP, Haynes DK, Smith I, Bucher-Bartelson B, Long CS. Inpatient initiation of beta-blockade plus nurse management in vulnerable heart failure patients: a randomized study. J Card Fail. 2008 May; 14(4):303-9.

Brown RD, Jones GM, Laird RE, Hudson P, Long CS. Cytokines regulate matrix metalloproteinases and migration in cardiac fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Oct 12; 362(1):200-5.

Krantz MJ, Baker WA, Estacio RO, Haynes DK, Mehler PS, Fonarow GC, Long CS. Comprehensive coronary artery disease care in a safety-net hospital: results of Get With The Guidelines quality improvement initiative. J Manag Care Pharm. 2007 May; 13(4):319-25.

Watson PA, Reusch JE, McCune SA, Leinwand LA, Luckey SW, Konhilas JP, Brown DA, Chicco AJ, Sparagna GC, Long CS, Moore RL. Restoration of CREB function is linked to completion and stabilization of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul; 293(1):H246-59.

Taylor MR, Slavov D, Ku L, Di Lenarda A, Sinagra G, Carniel E, Haubold K, Boucek MM, Ferguson D, Graw SL, Zhu X, Cavanaugh J, Sucharov CC, Long CS, Bristow MR, Lavori P, Mestroni L. Prevalence of desmin mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2007 Mar 13; 115(10):1244-51.

Mitchell MD, Laird RE, Brown RD, Long CS. IL-1beta stimulates rat cardiac fibroblast migration via MAP kinase pathways. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Feb; 292(2):H1139-47.

Voelkel NF, Quaife RA, Leinwand LA, Barst RJ, McGoon MD, Meldrum DR, Dupuis J, Long CS, Rubin LJ, Smart FW, Suzuki YJ, Gladwin M, Denholm EM, Gail DB. Right ventricular function and failure: report of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group on cellular and molecular mechanisms of right heart failure. Circulation. 2006 Oct 24; 114(17):1883-91.

Xu Y, Lu L, Greyson C, Rizeq M, Nunley K, Wyatt B, Bristow MR, Long CS, Schwartz GG. The PPAR-alpha activator fenofibrate fails to provide myocardial protection in ischemia and reperfusion in pigs. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 May; 290(5):H1798-807.

Krantz MJ, Haugen SJ, Batal H, Long CS. Off-site percutaneous coronary intervention reduces hospital length of stay in vulnerable patients with acute myocardial infarction. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2005 Sep; 4(3):127-30.

Kinugawa K, Jeong MY, Bristow MR, Long CS. Thyroid hormone induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in a thyroid hormone receptor alpha1-specific manner that requires TAK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Jun; 19(6):1618-28.

Jeong MY, Kinugawa K, Vinson C, Long CS. AFos dissociates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and expression of the pathological gene program. Circulation. 2005 Apr 05; 111(13):1645-51.

Mariner PD, Luckey SW, Long CS, Sucharov CC, Leinwand LA. Yin Yang 1 represses alpha-myosin heavy chain gene expression in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jan 07; 326(1):79-86.

Brown RD, Ambler SK, Mitchell MD, Long CS. The cardiac fibroblast: therapeutic target in myocardial remodeling and failure. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005; 45:657-87.

Xu Y, Gen M, Lu L, Fox J, Weiss SO, Brown RD, Perlov D, Ahmad H, Zhu P, Greyson C, Long CS, Schwartz GG. PPAR-gamma activation fails to provide myocardial protection in ischemia and reperfusion in pigs. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Mar; 288(3):H1314-23.

Krantz MJ, Havranek EP, Mehler PS, Haynes DK, Long CS. Impact of a cardiac risk reduction program in vulnerable patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease. Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Jun; 24(6):768-75.

Xu Y, Lu L, Greyson C, Lee J, Gen M, Kinugawa K, Long CS, Schwartz GG. Deleterious effects of acute treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in pigs. Diabetes. 2003 May; 52(5):1187-94.

Long CS, Brown RD. The cardiac fibroblast, another therapeutic target for mending the broken heart? J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Oct; 34(10):1273-8.

Bristow MR, Long CS. Cardiotrophin-1 in heart failure. Circulation. 2002 Sep 17; 106(12):1430-2.

Kinugawa K, Long CS, Bristow MR. Expression of TR isoforms in failing human heart. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct; 86(10):5089-90.

Kinugawa K, Yonekura K, Ribeiro RC, Eto Y, Aoyagi T, Baxter JD, Camacho SA, Bristow MR, Long CS, Simpson PC. Regulation of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2001 Sep 28; 89(7):591-8.

Ng DC, Long CS, Bogoyevitch MA. A role for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in interleukin-1 beta-stimulated delayed signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3 activation, atrial natriuretic factor expression, and cardiac myocyte morphology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 03; 276(31):29490-8.

Long CS. The role of interleukin-1 in the failing heart. Heart Fail Rev. 2001 Mar; 6(2):81-94.

Kinugawa K, Minobe WA, Wood WM, Ridgway EC, Baxter JD, Ribeiro RC, Tawadrous MF, Lowes BA, Long CS, Bristow MR. Signaling pathways responsible for fetal gene induction in the failing human heart: evidence for altered thyroid hormone receptor gene expression. Circulation. 2001 Feb 27; 103(8):1089-94.

Kinney JP, Long CS. The Ultraviolet Index: a useful tool. Dermatol Online J. 2000 Sep; 6(1):2.

Patten M, Wang W, Aminololama-Shakeri S, Burson M, Long CS. IL-1 beta increases abundance and activity of the negative transcriptional regulator yin yang-1 (YY1) in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Jul; 32(7):1341-52.

Kacimi R, Chentoufi J, Honbo N, Long CS, Karliner JS. Hypoxia differentially regulates stress proteins in cultured cardiomyocytes: role of the p38 stress-activated kinase signaling cascade, and relation to cytoprotection. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 Apr; 46(1):139-50.

Clerk A, Harrison JG, Long CS, Sugden PH. Pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamilies, increase phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF2 and upregulate c-Jun protein in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Dec; 31(12):2087-99.

Simonini A, Chang K, Yue P, Long CS, Massie BM. Expression of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase is reduced in rats with postinfarction heart failure. Heart. 1999 Mar; 81(3):303-7.

Gray MO, Long CS, Kalinyak JE, Li HT, Karliner JS. Angiotensin II stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via paracrine release of TGF-beta 1 and endothelin-1 from fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 1998 Nov; 40(2):352-63.

Koudssi F, López JE, Villegas S, Long CS. Cardiac fibroblasts arrest at the G1/S restriction point in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta. Evidence for IL-1beta-induced hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 02; 273(40):25796-803.

Yue P, Long CS, Austin R, Chang KC, Simpson PC, Massie BM. Post-infarction heart failure in the rat is associated with distinct alterations in cardiac myocyte molecular phenotype. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Aug; 30(8):1615-30.

Yue P, Massie BM, Simpson PC, Long CS. Cytokine expression increases in nonmyocytes from rats with postinfarction heart failure. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 2):H250-8.

Kacimi R, Karliner JS, Koudssi F, Long CS. Expression and regulation of adhesion molecules in cardiac cells by cytokines: response to acute hypoxia. Circ Res. 1998 Mar 23; 82(5):576-86.

Kacimi R, Long CS, Karliner JS. Chronic hypoxia modulates the interleukin-1beta-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway in cardiac myocytes. Circulation. 1997 Sep 16; 96(6):1937-43.

Li HT, Long CS, Gray MO, Rokosh DG, Honbo NY, Karliner JS. Cross talk between angiotensin AT1 and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors: angiotensin II downregulates alpha 1a-adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA and density in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 1997 Sep; 81(3):396-403.

Long CS. Autocrine and Paracrine Regulation of Myocardial Cell Growth in Vitro The TGFß Paradigm. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1996 Oct; 6(7):217-26.

Patten M, Hartogensis WE, Long CS. Interleukin-1beta is a negative transcriptional regulator of alpha1-adrenergic induced gene expression in cultured cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 30; 271(35):21134-41.

Simonini A, Massie BM, Long CS, Qi M, Samarel AM. Alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression in the rat with chronic congestive heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Aug; 28(8):1683-91.

Simonini A, Long CS, Dudley GA, Yue P, McElhinny J, Massie BM. Heart failure in rats causes changes in skeletal muscle morphology and gene expression that are not explained by reduced activity. Circ Res. 1996 Jul; 79(1):128-36.

Rokosh DG, Stewart AF, Chang KC, Bailey BA, Karliner JS, Camacho SA, Long CS, Simpson PC. Alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtype mRNAs are differentially regulated by alpha1-adrenergic and other hypertrophic stimuli in cardiac myocytes in culture and in vivo. Repression of alpha1B and alpha1D but induction of alpha1C. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 08; 271(10):5839-43.

Li HT, Long CS, Rokosh DG, Honbo NY, Karliner JS. Chronic hypoxia differentially regulates alpha 1-adrenergic receptor subtype mRNAs and inhibits alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and signaling. Circulation. 1995 Aug 15; 92(4):918-25.

Palmer JN, Hartogensis WE, Patten M, Fortuin FD, Long CS. Interleukin-1 beta induces cardiac myocyte growth but inhibits cardiac fibroblast proliferation in culture. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun; 95(6):2555-64.

Stewart AF, Rokosh DG, Bailey BA, Karns LR, Chang KC, Long CS, Kariya K, Simpson PC. Cloning of the rat alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor from cardiac myocytes. alpha 1C, alpha 1B, and alpha 1D mRNAs are present in cardiac myocytes but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Circ Res. 1994 Oct; 75(4):796-802.

Piedimonte G, Nadel JA, Long CS, Hoffman JI. Neutral endopeptidase in the heart. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in rats by reducing bradykinin degradation. Circ Res. 1994 Oct; 75(4):770-9.

Rokosh DG, Bailey BA, Stewart AF, Karns LR, Long CS, Simpson PC. Distribution of alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor mRNA in adult rat tissues by RNase protection assay and comparison with alpha 1B and alpha 1D. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 May 16; 200(3):1177-84.

Long CS, Hartogensis WE, Simpson PC. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac non-myocytes augments the growth-promoting activity of non-myocyte conditioned medium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1993 Aug; 25(8):915-25.

Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Sympathetic modulation of the cardiac myocyte phenotype: studies with a cell-culture model of myocardial hypertrophy. Basic Res Cardiol. 1992; 87 Suppl 2:19-31.

Long CS, Henrich CJ, Simpson PC. A growth factor for cardiac myocytes is produced by cardiac nonmyocytes. Cell Regul. 1991 Dec; 2(12):1081-95.

Simpson PC, Kariya K, Karns LR, Long CS, Karliner JS. Adrenergic hormones and control of cardiac myocyte growth. Mol Cell Biochem. 1991 May 29-Jun 12; 104(1-2):35-43.

Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Sympathetic activity: modulator of myocardial hypertrophy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991; 17 Suppl 2:S20-4.

Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Trophic factors for cardiac myocytes. J Hypertens Suppl. 1990 Dec; 8(7):S219-24.

Simpson PC, Long CS, Waspe LE, Henrich CJ, Ordahl CP. Transcription of early developmental isogenes in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1989 Dec; 21 Suppl 5:79-89.

Long CS, Ordahl CP, Simpson PC. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of sarcomeric actin isogene transcription in hypertrophy of cultured rat heart muscle cells. J Clin Invest. 1989 Mar; 83(3):1078-82.

Long CS, Ordahl CP. Transcriptional repression of an embryo-specific muscle gene. Dev Biol. 1988 May; 127(1):228-34.

Long CS. L'infarctus du ventricule droit--right ventricular infarction in the 1980s. West J Med. 1987 Mar; 146(3):344-50.

Barness SK, Long CS. Perioperative nursing. A special project. AORN J. 1984 Mar; 39(4):609-15.

McGarry JD, Mills SE, Long CS, Foster DW. Observations on the affinity for carnitine, and malonyl-CoA sensitivity, of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in animal and human tissues. Demonstration of the presence of malonyl-CoA in non-hepatic tissues of the rat. Biochem J. 1983 Jul 15; 214(1):21-8.

Long CS, Haller RG, Foster DW, McGarry JD. Kinetics of carnitine-dependent fatty acid oxidation: implications for human carnitine deficiency. Neurology. 1982 Jun; 32(6):663-6.

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